Bookmark and Share
home mail site_map
Loading Search ...
Hyd Flip Books
Top Clubs
Go Green

Web Solutions



Mir Turab Ali Khan - SalarJung I

No title, nor other earthly honour, can add to the greatness of the name of Salar Jung, but perhaps the dignified designation “Salar .Jung the Great”. To give his full titles, His Excellency, Mir Turab Ali Khan Bahadur, Sir Salar Jung, Shuja-ud-Daula, Mukhtar-ul-Mulk, G.C.S.l., D.CHe was the SOfl of Mir Muhammad Ali Khan Shuja-ud-l)aula who died in 1831. Mir Turab Au Khan, Salar Jung I, was born at Hyderahad on 21st January 1829.

Owing to the early death of his father he was brought up by his grandfather Munir-ul-Mulk and his uncle, Siraj-ul-Mulk. Munir-ulM ulk left large debts but these were paid off by Nasir-ud-Daula, Nizarn IV, in exchange for a large area of the family estates which were taken over by the Nizam. Turab Ali Khan was well educated in Arabic, Persian and English. Salar .Jung’s public life started in 1847 when,at the age of 19, he was appointed Taluqdar (Collector) of Khammam District in Telangana. He retained the appointment for about eight months, and personally mastered details of the office. On 26th May, 1853 his uncle Siraj-ul-Mulk passed away and five days later Salar Jung was installed as the Diwan by Nawab Nasir-ud-Daula, Nizam IV, in a Public Durbar, in the presence of the British Resident, Colonel Low.

“On Monday evening, 30th May, I was unexpectedly ordered by His Highness to attend the Durbar the next day, and to bring two Sarpaiches (head ornaments), and also to write to the Resident and ask him to attend at the same time; and without any solicitation on my part or my grandm other’s His Highness was pleased to confer the office of Diwan on me at the Durbar the day before yesterday (3 1st May), and that of Peshkar on Raja Narainder. I should have been quite content to remain in unmolested possession of my uncle’s jagirs, were it possible, without the cares which such an office would impose upon me, especially in the present critical state of affairs here, but I was advised by friends, Europeans and Native, and with too much appearance of truth to reject the advice, that if I declined the Office, myself and family would he utterly ruined. I shall, nevertheless, do my best with God’s help to restore some order in the affairs of this country and endeavour to extricate the Government from the embarrassments.

I trust you will defer giving effect to the intimation conveyed in Boyson’s letter of selling the jewels for a further short time, as you may depend on my using my best efforts to make arrangements for their redemption as early as I can.” After becoming the Diwan he used to work from early morning to midnight and had few amusements. Most of his friends were British and he enjoyed the prestige and reputation of his family name. “He rises at six a.m., and after a bath and a cup of tea proceeds to business. The darogahs of the Filkhana (elephant establishment) first wait upon him and make their reports. A public durbar is then held, to which the poorest of the people have free access and opportunity given them of making their representations. The various Jamadars (Officers) of the troops attend this durbar and make their reports. The Minister then proceeds to his private sitting-room, where he inspects the accounts of the treasury receipts and disbursements and the Munshee of the Dar-ul-Insha (Office of Correspondence) waits upon him with official letters for his approval and signature, and to receive communications respecting unanswered letters.

The Nazim (dispenser of justice) of the Adalut is then granted an audience. By the time the above business is gone through it is half-past ten, when the Minister goes to breakfast, which does not detain him above a quarter of an hour. He is now waited upon by the Munshee in charge of the Urzkhana (Office where petitions are received), who submits summaries of the petitions received the previous day, and receives orders thereon. The rest of the time till half-past twelve is occupied in attending to business of a miscellaneous nature, in receiving visitors etc. At half-past twelve o’ clock the noblemen and other courtiers from His Highness the Nizam’s palace, with the kotwal (magistrate’s deputy) of the city, attend to pay their respects. They are received in durbar, and the representations listened to which any of them may have to make. They are usually dismissed in about ten minutes, but to such of them as desire it, private interviews are granted by the Minister in his sitting-room. Afterwards His Highness’s hurkaras (messengers) attend to make their reports, and the correspondence from the Residency is attended to. The Minister then takes his siesta for about half an hour if there be no other pressing calls on his attention.

It is now about two p.m. After the afternoon prayers the undermentioned officers of Government are received, and their business is gone through in succession, viz, the dufterdars (record keepers) and their mutsuddies (clerks) the Jamadars (Officers) and Sarishtadars (Accountants) of the different corps. and the taluqdars (local Governors), and others. The saucars (bankers), also attend at this time of the day and have audiences granted them. Afterwards various accounts are looked into and orders given; the Resident’s letters are received, the Nizam’s Vakeels (confidential agents) also generally attend. & c. The Minister is thus occup1ed till half past five or six o’clock, when he goes into his garden, and either rides, drives, or walks for half an hour. The Nizam’s horses as well as the Minister’s are brought out for inspection at this hour. The Minister returns to his private sitting-room, and after evening prayers goes to dinner for about half an hour. After dinner the letters received from taluqdars are perused, and answers to them endorsed. I-Ic signs the letters prepared, examines and signs abstracts of pay, examines also taluq (district) accounts, or drafts letters of importance to the Resident. All this occupies until about half-past ten or eleven o’clock, when he retires to rest” How nobly Salar Jung fulfilled the task of modelling Hyderabad has since become a memorable chapter in the history of India. Salar Jung became Diwan’ at the age of 24 after the Treaty of 1853 under which a large territory of the Nizam was transferred to the British, resulting in a loss of revenue to the tune of about Rs. 40 lakh per annum. In addition to this, a large number of deposed jagirdars created problems for the State.

In spite of all these difficulties Mir Turab Au Khan reformed the State finances and laid the foundation of a sound administrative system. In 1857. during the great revolt, Flyderabad was severely affected. The Residency was attacked but Salar Jung stood firm and continued to support the British cause although the Nizams had always till then been loyal to the Mughal Emperor. In return the British stood by him whenever there was any threat to his position. During the early years of his prime ministership he survived several intrigues in the State with the support of the British but in protecting the interests of the State, he had to oppose some of the British policies towards Hyderabad. Salar Jung commanded great respect because he served the interest of the State and its people and never compromised the interest of his master. He also tried to preserve the old traditions and court ceremonies as he firmly believed that they were the life breath of a premier princely State. By and large Salar Jung supported the British because he believed that the State could survive only with their protection and support. In 1869, Nawab Afzal-ud-Daula died and at that time Mir Mahhoob Ali Khan, Nizam VI, was hardly three years old. A Regency was set up which enabled Salar Jung to exercise effective power. Amir-e-Kabir II was made the Co-Regent with the ‘Diwan’. The heavy expenditure on the maintenance of the Hyderabad Contingent and transfer of Berar were among the two major complaints of the Nizam’s Government against the British administration. With the object of fulfilling his aims Salar Jung developed good relations with the British nobles and visited England in 1876. He was warmly welcomed and accorded the freedom of the City of London and also the honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law of the prestigious Oxford University. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales gave a banquet in Salar Jung’s honour. He was presented to Her Majesty the Queen at Windsor Castle by the Marquis of Salisbury. In the beginning due to the poor financial position of the State Salar Jung was faced with the problem of meeting day-to-day expenses of the State and also the problem of paying heavy accumulated debts of the previous regime. However, by 1856, the measures taken by Salar Jung began to show results. In 1860 the districts of Raichur and Naldurg were restored to the Nizam by the British yielding a revenue of Rs. 21 Iakh. The administrative measures included establishment of a Central Treasury, Board of Revenue, introduction of Zillabandi and streamlining of revenue administration. In 1863 Hyderabad faced a severe famine which aggravated the financial problem. Salar Jung raised a loan of Rs. 2 crore from the British Government to tackle the problem. Large-scale relief work was carried out and cooked food was distributed to the poor for several months. In 1857, he abolished all private mints and introduced a new coinage for Hyderabad known as “Hali Sicca”. Salar Jung reorganised various departments including Forest, Revenue, Customs, Postal Ad ministration, and Mint.

As a result of all these measures, Salar Jung’s management of the State was not only successful in clearing off the debts of the previous decade bitt also put the economy on a sound footing. He laid the foundation of a sound revenue system. The total revenue increased from Rs. 6.8 million in 1853 to Rs. 29.6 million in 1865. Therefore, one of his greatest achievements was his financial administration of the state. In May 1854, about a year after his appointment as Prime Minister, Salar .Jung quietly and unostentatiously married a widow. The marriage was celebrated without much expense and elaborate ceremonies customary in those days. He declined the rich gifts offered to him on the occasion. Early in 1869, a desperate attempt was made on Salar Jung’s life as he was proceeding in a sedan chair to His Highness’ palace. A man from the crowd fired two pistol shots in rapid succession.

Salar jung escaped miraculously unhurt. Salar Jung served as the Prime Minister of Hyderabad for 30 years four years from 1853 under Nasir-ud-Daula, 12 years from 1857 under Afzal-ud-Daula, and 14 years from 1869 under Mahboob Ali Khan till his death. Salar Jung’s performance as the Prime Minister of Hyderabad was remarkable. I-Ic saved the State from chaos and financial disaster. He lent his support to liberal education, including women’s education, encouraged the founding of a medical school and was interested in promoting cultural activities. In 1853-54, he opened the Oriental College (Dar-ul-Uloom) at Hyderahad. In 1878. he set up a school in Rambold’s Kothi, known as the Mad rasa-i-Aliya for the education of his sons and those of other nobles in the city. The modern system of education in Hyderabad owes its origin and existence to Salar Jung. Salar Jung enhanced the respect for justice in 1-lyderabad by setting up a number of courts in the city as well as in the districts. To him all were equal in the eyes of the law. He abolished mutilation and capital punishment and supported the prohibition of “Sati” and separated civil and criminal judiciary. Salar .Jung was so engrossed in his official duties that he neglected his own estate finances. His estate did not bring him any financial benefit when he was the ‘Diwan’. In fact he died without clearing his own debts. Salar Jung’s death was uiexpected and sudden. On 7th February, 1883 he took the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg and a party of friends for a sail on the Mir Alam lake. On his return, he had his dinner, worked till midnight as usual, and then retired to bed. On Thursday 8th February he passed away with symptoms of cholera. Hyderabad was plunged in sorrow. The Nizam burst into tears when he heard the news.

Copyright©2015 Privacy policy | Terms and conditions   
Top Tourist Spots      Hyderabad Flip Book

Pump Training By Peerless Pump Professional Instructors