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Gadwal Samasthan

In the This is situated between the rivers Tungabhadra and Krishna over an area of about 800 sq. miles. After the fall of the Warangal Andhra dynasty in the 14th century, Gadwal transferred its allegiance to the new Bahmani kingdom. When Bahmani kingdom split up into several independent Muhammadan kingdoms, Gadwal attached itself to the most powerful of these, namely the Adil Shahi kingdom of Bijapur. According to the family history, Pedda Veera Reddy, Peddanna Bhupaludu, Sarga Reddy, Veera Reddy and Kumara Veera Reddy ruled Gadwal between 1553 and 1704. The Gadwal rulers helped Aurangzeb during his campaign against Bijapur and Golconda. The services of the Rajas were recognised and the Emperor confirmed the status of “Nadgoud” on the Rajas or Palayagar of Gadwal.

In 1715 during the reign of Farukh Siyar the status of the Raja of Gadwal was recognised. The Gadwal chief who owed allegiance to the Mughals transferred it to the Asaf Jahi dynasty in 1724. The Gadwal Rajas were trusted the most by the Nizam and their services were recognised. During the reign of Nizam Au Khan Asaf Jah 11, the Marathas gained power in certain parts of the Deccan and started collecting ‘Chouth’ or 25 per cent of the revenue known as “Do-Amli” or the double government of the Nizam. The Nizam used to collect “Peshkash” and the Marathas “Chouth”. The Rajas thus seem to have played the two powers, the Nizam and the Marathas, one against the other and consolidated their position.

They became allies of both. Raja Ram Bhupal was recognised by the second Nizam with the usual title of Raja Bhupal and Bahadur. The Gadwal Rajas also minted their own coins and ‘Peshkash’ was paid in Gadwal rupees. Later, as the Nizam became more powerful the chouth to the Marathas was discontinued and the same was added to the Nizam’s share. Raja Sitaram Bhupal died in 1840 and was succeeded by his second wife Venkatalakshmamma. Shortly after the Raja’s death the Nizam’s Government in a letter dated 24th March, 1840, assured the widow of the Raja that so long as she was loyal to the Nizam, his Government would support the Samasthan. On 3rd June, 1840, Raja Sombhupal who was adopted by the aforesaid Rani ascended the ‘Gaddi’ and was recognised by the Nizam’s Government as the lawful ruler.

In 1844, Rani Venkatalakshmamma again assumed the reins of the government and later adopted her brother’s son, Rambhupal II, who succeeded to the Gaddi in November, 1845. Raja Ram Bhupal died on 31st March 1901 and was succeeded by his adopted son, Raja Sitaram Bhupal II. During the minority of the Raja the Samasthan was placed under the court of ward with Rani Lakshmi I)evamma as the guardian. In 1913 the Samasthan was restored to the Raja and in the same year he married Adilakshmi Devamma from Kurnool district. Nizam VII bestowed on him the title of “Maharaja” and he died in 1924 and was survived by his widow and two daughters, Veera Lakshmi Devamma and Sai Lakshmi Devamma. In March, 1934,the Ni,arn confirmed full administrative power to the Maharani.

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